My bare minimum NDepend rules (and how to get them into a new project)

When you run an Ndepend anylsis over a project you will notice a certain tendency of the Code Queries (CQL) to overwhelm you. By default NDepends comes with a lot of queries against your code that can help you to have an eye on code quality metrics.

After having used NDepend for some like, I like to keep a bare minimum of rules around that I deem really important…


  • A large type (currently LOC > 400 or IL Instruction > 2500) is most likely doing too much.Doing too much? It means there are too many reasons why a type may change
  • A cohesive type is ideally one where all instance fields are used by all methods. If we are getting poor cohesion it is again a sign that a type is doing too much.
  • Outgoing (or efferent) coupling is a metric that states how many other types a type is using. Coupling is in general a pretty bad thing. While without any coupling obviously nothing happens, excessive coupling does what it also does in nature: It reduces degrees of freedom. I n programming those are usually needed for the ability to change code without breaking too much.
  • Afferent (or in coming) coupling is the opposite direction. How many types are using this type? Having a high number here doesn’t necessarily mean a bad thing. Which is why the version here is weakened and will not look at afferent coupling in abstract types and interfaces.
  • Next one only starts warning after a certain point. This is less of a pain point but more of a having things clean type of attitude.
  • Things that can be private should be private. You can’t couple from the outside to things that are private. Even when you don’t, a maintainer may not know if somebody is using that which could be private from the outside.


  • A large method is bad news in terms of maintainability. Probability of a bugs increase with method size, and most likely not linearly.
  • A complex method is even worse. Many methods will actually appear in both metrics, as a large one is probably complex. Complexity refers to cyclomatic complexity: if, switch, else foreach…
  • Methods with many parameters are unwieldy, difficult to use, refactor and is a sure sign of procedural programming
  • The next one is debatable but my personal experience is that too many overloads cause problems. Extending becomes difficult, you can have strange side-effects and some parameter class may be missing.
  • Potentially unused methods is something to be aware of. They may be used in a refactoring / dynamic scenario, but some of them may be remnats of other times.
  • Again, things that can be private should be. Not many things manage to make me frown as well as excessive use of get; set on properties where the set is only used in private. This is bad, don’t do it!
  • Afferent and efferent coupling also exist on a method level. While big and complex methods are most likely going to have high efferent coupling, afferent gets its own metric. It may not be a bad thing that a method has high afferent coupling, but it could mean that there is a type missing or something else that can break apart the pile of coupling that is mounting up.


  • I love readonly fields. They tell me straight away that they are immutable things, invariants of some instance. This really helps keeping complexity under control
  • Public fields are definitely strange and should be looked at

I haven’t seen a simple way to get my own set of CQL queries into an NDepend project, so here’s what I do to get them into a new project.

  • An NDepend project file is an XML file. I extract the node containing the CQL Queries and store it in its own file.
  • The following Powershell function will then inject that file into some other NDepend project:
function ReplaceNode([string]$projectName) {
  $here = pwd
  $xml = New-Object -TypeName System.Xml.XmlDocument
  $oldNode = $xml.SelectSingleNode("/NDepend/CQLQueries")

  $xml2 = New-Object -TypeName System.Xml.XmlDocument
  $xml2.Load("C:\dotnet\bin\NDepend Support\CQL.xml")
  $newNode = $xml2.SelectSingleNode("/CQLQueries")
  $imported = $xml.ImportNode($newNode,$true)

It assumes you are in the directory that contains your new NDepend project, requires you to enter the name and has the location of your CQL queries hard coded.

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Frank Quednau 2022