# My bare minimum NDepend rules (and how to get them into a new project)

When you run an Ndepend anylsis over a project you will notice a certain tendency of the Code Queries (CQL) to overwhelm you. By default NDepends comes with a lot of queries against your code that can help you to have an eye on code quality metrics.

After having used NDepend for some like, I like to keep a bare minimum of rules around that I deem really important…

• A large type (currently LOC > 400 or IL Instruction > 2500) is most likely doing too much.Doing too much? It means there are too many reasons why a type may change
• A cohesive type is ideally one where all instance fields are used by all methods. If we are getting poor cohesion it is again a sign that a type is doing too much.
• Outgoing (or efferent) coupling is a metric that states how many other types a type is using. Coupling is in general a pretty bad thing. While without any coupling obviously nothing happens, excessive coupling does what it also does in nature: It reduces degrees of freedom. I n programming those are usually needed for the ability to change code without breaking too much.
• Afferent (or in coming) coupling is the opposite direction. How many types are using this type? Having a high number here doesn’t necessarily mean a bad thing. Which is why the version here is weakened and will not look at afferent coupling in abstract types and interfaces.
• Next one only starts warning after a certain point. This is less of a pain point but more of a having things clean type of attitude.
• Things that can be private should be private. You can’t couple from the outside to things that are private. Even when you don’t, a maintainer may not know if somebody is using that which could be private from the outside.

• A large method is bad news in terms of maintainability. Probability of a bugs increase with method size, and most likely not linearly.
• A complex method is even worse. Many methods will actually appear in both metrics, as a large one is probably complex. Complexity refers to cyclomatic complexity: if, switch, else foreach…
• Methods with many parameters are unwieldy, difficult to use, refactor and is a sure sign of procedural programming
• The next one is debatable but my personal experience is that too many overloads cause problems. Extending becomes difficult, you can have strange side-effects and some parameter class may be missing.
• Potentially unused methods is something to be aware of. They may be used in a refactoring / dynamic scenario, but some of them may be remnats of other times.
• Again, things that can be private should be. Not many things manage to make me frown as well as excessive use of get; set on properties where the set is only used in private. This is bad, don’t do it!
• Afferent and efferent coupling also exist on a method level. While big and complex methods are most likely going to have high efferent coupling, afferent gets its own metric. It may not be a bad thing that a method has high afferent coupling, but it could mean that there is a type missing or something else that can break apart the pile of coupling that is mounting up.

• I love readonly fields. They tell me straight away that they are immutable things, invariants of some instance. This really helps keeping complexity under control
• Public fields are definitely strange and should be looked at

I haven’t seen a simple way to get my own set of CQL queries into an NDepend project, so here’s what I do to get them into a new project.

• An NDepend project file is an XML file. I extract the node containing the CQL Queries and store it in its own file.
• The following Powershell function will then inject that file into some other NDepend project:
function ReplaceNode([string]$projectName) {$here = pwd
$xml = New-Object -TypeName System.Xml.XmlDocument$xml.Load("$here\$projectName.ndproj")
$oldNode =$xml.SelectSingleNode("/NDepend/CQLQueries")

$xml2 = New-Object -TypeName System.Xml.XmlDocument$xml2.Load("C:\dotnet\bin\NDepend Support\CQL.xml")
$newNode =$xml2.SelectSingleNode("/CQLQueries")
$imported =$xml.ImportNode($newNode,$true)
$oldNode.ParentNode.ReplaceChild($imported,$oldNode)$xml.Save("$here\$projectName.ndproj")
}

It assumes you are in the directory that contains your new NDepend project, requires you to enter the name and has the location of your CQL queries hard coded.

Frank Quednau 2021